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Thursday, March 6, 2014

ICE STORM PART 2 (THE BUZZARDS WINGS ARE FROZEN PHOTO BLOG)


Hi Everybody!!
Welcome to Part 2 of the Ice Storm on Rainbow Creek. This is King Buzz with Icicles! They sleep in the tall pine trees, but it did sleet most of the night. This morning they made it to the meeting tree on frozen wings that cracked as they flapped. I have never seen anything like this before and was concerned the buzzards would all freeze to death and fall off the branch dead. Of course, I came in and searched Google for the answer. Turns out the birds were likely warmer in the frozen tree than I was standing there watching them! Birds can regulate hypothermia at will while Humans cannot. For our info tonight, I have shared an excerpt on Hypothermia from Wikipedia. Many people were trapped out in these winter storms this season. It would be a good idea to familiarize yourself about the effects of prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures so you can take measures to avoid such exposure. Remember, we do not have feathers! Enjoy! 














Link to photostudy in G+ Photo Album:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/photos/117645114459863049265/albums/5987037562375513409
























(From Auto Awesome!)
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia

Hypothermia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hypothermia (from Greek ὑποθερμία) is a condition in which the body's core temperature drops below that required for normal metabolism and body functions. This is generally considered to be 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F) through biologic homeostasis orthermoregulation. If a person is exposed to cold, and their internal mechanisms cannot replenish the heat that is being lost, the body's core temperature falls, and characteristic symptoms occur such as shivering and mental confusion.
One of the lowest documented body temperatures from which anyone has recovered was 13.0 °C (55.4 °F) in a near-drowning incident involving a 7-year-old girl in Sweden in December 2010.[1] Hypothermia is the opposite of hyperthermia which is present in heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Classification


Normal human body temperature in adults is 34.4–37.8 °C (93.9–100.0 °F).[8] Sometimes a narrower range is stated, such as 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F).[9] Hypothermia is defined as any body temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Hypothermia is classified in four different degrees: mild, 32–35 °C (90–95 °F); moderate, 28–32 °C (82–90 °F); severe, 20–28 °C (68–82 °F); and profound at less than 20 °C (68 °F).[10] This is in contrast to hyperthermia and feverwhich are defined as a temperature of greater than 37.5–38.3 °C (99.5–100.9 °F).[5]
Other cold-related injuries that can be present either alone or in combination with hypothermia include:
  • Chilblains are superficial ulcers of the skin that occur when a predisposed individual is repeatedly exposed to cold.[11]
  • Frostbite involves the freezing and destruction of tissue.[11]
  • Frostnip is a superficial cooling of tissues without cellular destruction.[12]
  • Trench foot or immersion foot is due to repetitive exposure to water, at non-freezing temperatures.[11]

Signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms vary depending on the degree of hypothermia, and may be divided by the three stages of severity. Infants with hypothermia may feel cold when touched, with bright red skin and unusual lack of energy.[13]

Mild

Symptoms of mild hypothermia may be vague,[14] with sympathetic nervous system excitation (shiveringhypertensiontachycardia,tachypnea, and vasoconstriction). These are all physiological responses to preserve heat.[15] Cold diuresis, mental confusion, andhepatic dysfunction may also be present.[16] Hyperglycemia may be present, as glucose consumption by cells and insulin secretion both decrease, and tissue sensitivity to insulin may be blunted.[17] Sympathetic activation also releases glucose from the liver. In many cases, however, especially in alcoholic patients, hypoglycemia appears to be a more common presentation.[17] Hypoglycemia is also found in many hypothermic patients, because hypothermia may be a result of hypoglycemia.[18]

Moderate

Low body temperature results in shivering becoming more violent. Muscle mis-coordination becomes apparent.[19][20][21] Movements are slow and labored, accompanied by a stumbling pace and mild confusion, although the person may appear alert. Surface blood vessels contract further as the body focuses its remaining resources on keeping the vital organs warm. The subject becomes pale. Lips, ears, fingers and toes may become blue.

Severe

As the temperature decreases, further physiological systems falter and heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure all decrease. This results in an expected heart rate in the 30s at a temperature of 28 °C (82 °F).[16]
Difficulty in speaking, sluggish thinking, and amnesia start to appear; inability to use hands and stumbling is also usually present. Cellular metabolic processes shut down. Below 30 °C (86 °F), the exposed skin becomes blue and puffy, muscle coordination becomes very poor, walking becomes almost impossible, and the person exhibits incoherent/irrational behavior including terminal burrowing (see below) or even a stuporPulse and respiration rates decrease significantly, but fast heart rates (ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation) can occur. Major organs fail. Clinical death occurs.

Prevention

Appropriate clothing helps to prevent hypothermia. Synthetic and wool fabrics are superior to cotton as they provide better insulation when wet and dry. Some synthetic fabrics, such as polypropylene and polyester, are used in clothing designed to wick perspiration away from the body, such as liner socks and moisture-wicking undergarments. Clothing should be loose fitting. In planning outdoor activity, prepare appropriately for possible cold weather. Those who drink alcohol before or during outdoor activity should ensure at least one sober person is present responsible for safety.
Covering the head is effective, but no more effective than covering any other part of the body. While common folklore says that people lose most of their heat through their heads, heat loss from the head is no more significant than that from other uncovered parts of the body.[48][49] However, heat loss from the head is significant in infants, whose head is larger relative to the rest of the body than in adults. Several studies have shown that for uncovered infants, lined hats significantly reduce heat loss and thermal stress.[50][51][52]Children have a larger surface area per unit mass, and other things being equal should have one more layer of clothing than adults in similar conditions, and the time they spend in cold environments should be limited. However children are often more active than adults, and may generate more heat. In both adults and children, overexertion causes sweating and thus increases heat loss.[53]
Building a shelter can aid survival where there is danger of death from exposure. Shelters can be of many different types, metal can conduct heat away from the occupants and is sometimes best avoided. The shelter should not be too big so body warmth stays near the occupants. Good ventiation is essential especially if a fire will be lit in the shelter. Fires should be put out before the occupants sleep to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. People caught in very cold, snowy conditions can build an igloo or snow cave to shelter.[54][55]
The United States Coast Guard promotes using life vests to protect against hypothermia through the 50/50/50 rule: If someone is in 50 °F (10 °C) water for 50 minutes, he/she has a 50 percent better chance of survival if wearing a life jacket.[citation needed][56] A heat escape lessening position can be used to increase survival in cold water.
Babies should sleep at 16-20°C (61-68°F) and housebound people should be checked regularly to make sure the temperature of the home is sufficient.[28][57][53] [58]

Epidemiology

In the past, hypothermia occurred most frequently in homeless people, but recreational exposure to cold environments is now the main cause of hypothermia. Between 1995 and 2004 in the United States, an average of 1560 cold-related emergency department visits occurred per year and in the years 1999 to 2004, an average of 647 people died per year due to hypothermia.[30][74]

Other animals

Many animals other than humans often induce hypothermia during hibernation or torpor.
Water bears (Tardigrade), microscopic multicellular organisms, can survive freezing at low temperatures by replacing most of their internal water with the sugar trehalose, preventing the crystallization that otherwise damages cell membranes.
See above link for complete article.
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For Bird Hypothermia see this link:
http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/birdmetabolism.html

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...this is brendasue signing off from Rainbow Creek.  See You next time!

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