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Hi Everybody!!
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Saturday, September 22, 2012

PART TWO: WHO KNEW (?) THE COST OF PERMAFROST LOSS (?) (TOO LATE_THE METHANE HAS ESCAPED PHOTO BLOG)




Hi Everybody!!!!!!

The INFORMATION in tonight's post should be HEADLINE NEWS. It is possible that everybody in the World except me already knows. 
If I can find these You Tube Video Productions from 4 and 5 years ago, then obviously it has been public information for a long time. Who Knew?
Do You know what Methane Clathrate Is?
Do You know what happens when Permafrost is lost? 
And, Does Anybody Care?


Methane clathrate (CH4•5.75H2O[1]), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane,methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.[2] Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of Earth.[3] The worldwide amounts of carbon bound in gas hydrates is conservatively estimated to total twice the amount of carbon to be found in all known fossil fuels on Earth.[4]
(See Continued text below from Wikipedia)

Before we jump into the study for tonight, I would like to mention a few points:

In my real life, sometimes people make fun of me when I relate how much I am learning on Google's You Tube Site.
As You, my photoblog friends know: 
 we are learning many things about Earth Nature, Human Nature and Space Nature via You Tube video lineups on my posts or on your own trips to the You Tube Site. I stand in support of this Google Site to those who make fun of it.
Your time on the internet is Your time. You go wherever You want to go and see what You want to see. For ME, I choose to come to the You Tube site to watch documentaries and breaking world news events. I also choose the Wikipedia Site for good information. In addition, I prefer the Google News over the canned mainstream (delayed) news displayed in the states. My favorite place of all is the Google Search Box to the Index.
I share the information I find on this Blog for all to see. For Free. 
(I sell nothing on the Internet).

If increasing Your Knowledge of the Current Nature of the Earth is not 'Your Thing', simply click off my page. 

Okay, we will now return to the study for tonight:

We are living the fact in real time that the Earth has rapidly heated up. In my last post, we explored the degree of melting Ice and some of the effects.
Tonight in Part Two, we will look at some other effects of the Melt and/or Thaw in the Arctic. Permafrost and Methane Clathrates.

Anyone who bakes bread knows the oven needs a source of heat. You can feel how hot the oven is when you stick your hand in it-a dry heat that cooks the bread dough to golden brown. I am a Chef, so I do know about baking in an oven!!!  

In July (2012), I began to feel like I was baking in an oven just by walking outside in my garden. Sure, the Sun was Hot, but it has always been Hot. This was something different that was baking my tree top leaves to a nice golden brown. Baked Birds have been falling out of the sky. Baked Fish have been floating up in the creek. Baked Corn is in the pastures. Baked cows, in the fields. The vegetable garden, roasted. Nothing to harvest and can. There are no pecans as they threw off in July. The twenty year old apple tree-fried pie. The few hummingbirds that made it here, left 2 months early. I have no bees and especially, no flies. My frogs are poached. The Earth is baking as witnessed by drought records since July. What is the source of this consistent heat wave?

We found holes and weak spots in the magnetic shield which could account for some of the difference. We found that gamma rays and the solar winds were penetrating the weakness. Yet these are not constant, they come and go. Whatever continued to bake the Earth through August was constant heat like an oven. We see that we have surpassed all 'global warming' predictions for burning fossil fuels in the past three months.

So what is it that has overheated our atmosphere and melted all the Ice?
I think I have finally found the answer to the constant heat source:  Methane.

I hope You all will view the following video lineup.  I hope my video producing friends will address this issue and advise us of the current status of frozen gas now released into our atmosphere.



File:Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions.png

Permafrost

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In geologypermafrost or cryotic soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C(32 °F) for two or more years. Most permafrost is located in high latitudes (i.e. land close to the North and South poles), but alpine permafrost may exist at high altitudes in much lower latitudes. Ice is not always present, as may be in the case of nonporous bedrock, but it frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of the ground material. Permafrost accounts for 0.022% of total water and exists in 24% of exposed land in the Northern Hemisphere.

Extent of permafrost

The extent of permafrost varies with the climate. Today, a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by permafrost (including discontinuous permafrost). Overlying permafrost is a thin active layer that seasonally thaws during the summer. Plant life can be supported only within the active layer since growth can occur only in soil that is fully thawed for some part of the year. Thickness of the active layer varies by year and location, but is typically 0.6–4 m (2.0–13 ft) thick. In areas of continuous permafrost and harsh winters the depth of the permafrost can be as much as 1,493 m (4,898 ft) in the northern Lena and Yana River basins in Siberia. Permafrost can also store carbon, both as peat and as methane. The most recent work investigating the permafrost carbon pool size estimates that 1400–1700 Gt of carbon is stored in permafrost soils worldwide. [1]This large carbon pool represents more carbon than currently exists in all living things and twice as much carbon as exists in the atmosphere.

Continuous and discontinuous permafrost

Permafrost typically forms in any climate where the mean annual air temperature is less than the freezing point of water. Exceptions are found in moist-wintered forest climates, such as in Northern Scandinavia and the North-Eastern part of European Russia west of the Urals, where snow acts as an insulating blanket. The bottoms of many glaciers can also be free of permafrost.
Typically, the below-ground temperature varies less from season to season than the air temperature, with temperatures tending to increase with depth. Thus, if the mean annual air temperature is only slightly below 0 °C (32 °F), permafrost will form only in spots that are sheltered—usually with a northerly aspect. This creates what is known asdiscontinuous permafrost. Usually, permafrost will remain discontinuous in a climate where the mean annual soil surface temperature is between -5 and 0 °C (23 and 32 °F). In the moist-wintered areas mentioned before, there may not be even discontinuous permafrost down to −2 °C (28 °F). Discontinuous permafrost is often further divided intoextensive discontinuous permafrost, where permafrost covers between 50 and 90 percent of the landscape and is usually found in areas with mean annual temperatures between -2 and -4 °C (28 and 25 °F), and sporadic permafrost, where permafrost cover is less than 50 percent of the landscape and typically occurs at mean annual temperatures between 0 and -2 °C (32 and 28 °F).
In soil science, the sporadic permafrost zone is abbreviated SPZ and the extensive discontinuous permafrost zone DPZ.
Exceptions occur in un-glaciated Siberia and Alaska where the present depth of permafrost is a relic of climatic conditions during glacial ages where winters were up to11 °C (19.8 °F) colder than those of today. At mean annual soil surface temperatures below −5 °C (23 °F) the influence of aspect can never be sufficient to thaw permafrost and a zone of continuous permafrost (abbreviated to CPZ) forms. "Fossil" cold anomalies in the Geothermal gradient in areas where deep permafrost developed during the Pleistocene persist down to several hundred metres. The Suwałki cold anomaly in Poland led to the recognition that similar thermal disturbances related to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes are recorded in boreholes throughout Poland.[2]
A line of continuous permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere[3] is formed from the most northerly points at which permafrost sometimes thaws or is interrupted by regions without permafrost. North of this line all land is covered by permafrost or glacial ice. The "line" of continuous permafrost lies further north at some longitudes than others and can gradually move northward or southward due to regional climatic changes. In thesouthern hemisphere, most of the equivalent line would fall within the Southern Ocean if there were land there. Most of the Antarctic continent is overlain by glaciers.
In the Andes along the Atacama Desert permafrost extends down to an altitude of 4,400 metres (14,400 ft) and is continuous above 5,600 metres (18,400 ft).

Changes in permafrost extent

In Yukon, the zone of continuous permafrost might have moved 100 kilometres (62 mi) poleward since 1899, but accurate records only go back 30 years. It is thought that permafrost thawing could exacerbate global warming by releasing methane and otherhydrocarbons, which are powerful greenhouse gases.[4] [5] [6] It also could encourageerosion because permafrost lends stability to barren Arctic slopes.
At the Last Glacial Maximum, continuous permafrost covered a much greater area than it does today, covering all of ice-free Europe south to about Szeged (southeastern Hungary) and the Sea of Azov (then dry land) and China south to Beijing. In North America, only an extremely narrow belt of permafrost existed south of the ice sheet at about the latitude of New Jersey through southern Iowa and northern Missouri. In the southern hemisphere, there is some evidence for former permafrost from this period in central Otago and Argentine Patagonia, but was probably discontinuous, and is related to the tundra.

Cryosphere atlas northleg122159163110472.pngLocation of Permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere. Glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet are violet, and Arctic Sea Ice is light blue. from NSIDC


Permafrost 'thaw' versus 'melt'

As permafrost is solely defined by ground temperature below the freezing point of water, it can consist of any substrate such as bedrock, sediment, organic matter, or ice. Ground ice is not always present, as may be in the case of nonporous bedrock, but frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of the ground material. Since permafrost consists to a large amount of substrates other than ice, permafrost does not 'melt' but it 'thaws' [7]. However, if ground ice is present, the ground ice in permafrost can 'melt'. A commonly invoked analogy is the freezer whose door was left open accidentally: Though the ice in the freezer will melt, most of the food, consisting of solids, will certainly not melt (=turn into a liquid) but thaw (=warm above the freezing point)

Ecological consequences

Formation of permafrost has significant consequences for ecological systems, primarily due to constraints imposed upon rooting zones, but also due to limitations on den and burrow geometries for fauna requiring subsurface homes. Secondary effects impact speciesdependent on plants and animals whose habitat is constrained by the permafrost. One of the most widespread examples is the dominance of Black Spruce in extensive permafrost areas, since this species can tolerate rooting pattern constrained to the near surface.[8]
Should a substantial amount of the carbon enter the atmosphere, it would accelerate planetary warming. A significant proportion may will emerge as methane, which is produced when the breakdown occurs in lakes or wetlands. Although it does not remain in the atmosphere for long, methane traps more of the sun’s heat. The potential for large methane emissions in the Arctic is poorly understood. The United States Department of Energy and the European Union recently committed to related research projects. Preliminary computer analyses suggest that permafrost could produce carbon equal to 15 percent or so of today’s emissions from human activities.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permafrost


Video Line Up (You Tube Vids)
Just Push Play
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yN4OdKPy9rM

Uploaded by  on Apr 7, 2011
Because of a warming atmosphere, permafrost -- the frozen ground that covers the top of the world -- has been thawing rapidly over the last three decades. But there is cause for concern beyond the far north, because the carbon released from thawing permafrost could raise global temperatures even higher.

The Changing Planet series explores the impact that climate change is having on our planet, and is provided by the National Science Foundation (http://science360.gov/series/Changing+Planet/) & NBC Learn (http://www.nbclearn.com/changingplanet)

For related lesson plans, visit the Windows to the Universe project team at the National Earth Science Teachers Association athttp://www.windows2universe.org/earth/changing_planet

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Another point of view, Just Push Play
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKIdXXc54LA
Uploaded by  on Mar 9, 2008
http://suprememastertv.com/ - Video highlights the critical point of the environment in regards to global warming. Shows information on the methane gas hydrates being released from the Arctic lakes and permafrost and also shows NASA Report on global warming with quote from Jay Zwally.

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FEATURE PRESENTATION:
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Of course, one more great performance.
This is a great lecture on Methane Hydrates by a famous Scientist.
The Answers are HERE:  Just Push Play:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mSTm6cZjO14
Uploaded by  on Aug 7, 2008
Explore naturally occurring frozen methane deposits under the sea with renowned geochemist Miriam Kastner and discover whether or not they are a hazard to climate change. Series: "Perspectives on Ocean Science" [8/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14350]

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File:Burning hydrate inlay US Office Naval Research.jpg
"Burning ice". Methane, released by heating, burns; water drips.
Inset: clathrate structure (University of Göttingen, GZG. Abt. Kristallographie).
Source: United States Geological Survey.



Methane clathrate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4•5.75H2O[1]), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane,methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.[2] Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of Earth.[3] The worldwide amounts of carbon bound in gas hydrates is conservatively estimated to total twice the amount of carbon to be found in all known fossil fuels on Earth.[4]
Methane clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere, and they occur both in deep sedimentary structures, and as outcrops on the ocean floor. Methane hydrates are believed to form by migration of gas from depth along geological faults, followed by precipitation, or crystallization, on contact of the rising gas stream with cold sea water. Methane clathrates are also present in deep Antarctic ice cores, and record a history of atmospheric methane concentrations, dating to 800,000 years ago.[5] The ice-core methane clathrate record is a primary source of data for global warming research, along with oxygen and carbon dioxide.


Methane clathrates and climate change



Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas. Despite its short atmospheric half life of 7 years, methane has a global warming potential of 62 over 20 years and 21 over 100 years (IPCC, 1996; Berner and Berner, 1996; vanLoon and Duffy, 2000). The sudden release of large amounts of natural gas from methane clathrate deposits has been hypothesized as a cause of past and possibly future climatechanges. Events possibly linked in this way are the Permian-Triassic extinction event and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.
Climate scientists such as James E. Hansen hypothesize that methane clathrates in the permafrost regions will be released as a result of global warming, unleashing powerful feedback forces which may cause runaway climate change that cannot be controlled.
Recent research carried out in 2008 in the Siberian Arctic has shown millions of tonnes of methane being released[35][36][37][38][39] with concentrations in some regions reaching up to 100 times above normal.[40]

SEE remaining text at this link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate


File:Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circum-Arctic_Map_of_Permafrost_and_Ground_Ice_Conditions.png

Summary

DescriptionCircum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions
Date1998, revised February 2001
Sourcehttp://nsidc.org/data/docs/fgdc/ggd318_map_circumarctic/index.html
AuthorBrown, J., O.J. Ferrians, Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov. 1998, revised February 2001. Circum-arctic map of permafrost and ground ice conditions. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate



http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://marine.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/gas-hydrates/gas-hydrates-6.gif&imgrefurl=http://marine.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/gas-hydrates/title.html&h=768&w=819&sz=479&tbnid=H1QqLdlGZziKBM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=97&zoom=1&usg=__rriEIBQtlpPQFMZUluk_5VxHKIs=&docid=VBp_pQvzE6Ay7M&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DdtdUM_aOqeq2gXhooG4Cw&ved=0CDEQ9QEwAg&dur=23776

BONUS VID:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8y3eqF-2XY


Published on Sep 22, 2012 by 
FIRST DAY OF NORTHERN AUTUMN: The seasons are changing. Today, Sept. 22nd at 10:49 a.m. EDT, the sun crosses the celestial equator heading north. This marks the beginning of autumn in the northern hemisphere and spring in the southern hemisphere. At this time of year, day and night are of nearly equal length, hence the name "equinox" (equal night).http://www.spaceweather.com ... http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov

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