Hi Everybody!!

Hi Everybody!!
Welcome to my Hometown!!

Saturday, June 29, 2013


Hi Everybody!!
It hit 103 degrees outside today which is TOO HOT! I have been over 100 here for a week with no rain in sight as the clouds melt away every morning. My trees are showing great stress going into July. I have fried green tomatoes on the vine. To give all of us some needed relief from the Heat, I have created a digital 'Chill Room' for us tonight! I went to my G+ Photo Albums and transferred my Ice Shots to our Blogger Page. 
Snap, Presto-Enjoy being really Cool.

The following link is to my Google+ Albums.
You are welcome to visit anytime!

Here are some shots from the Ice Albums:

Brendasue Watson

Shared publicly  -  Jan 7, 2012
Have a ice weekend!
Brendasue Watson's profile photo笨笨倪's profile photoWiesław Oberda's profile photo

Brendasue Watson
Jan 8, 2012
HI JOHN. Icicles are not a complete unknown-In sixty years I have see them 10 times or so! I have always been a little jealous of those that have snow and ice! Our freezes are hours usually. But on this day I had temps below freezing for 3 days. Concerned that my water well might freeze, I decided to run it through the freeze! I have a sprinkler head on the wooden fence that sprays in a circle. Everytime the water hit something, it would trickle down and freeze! I finally had my own Ice Garden!!!!! People stopped to look at it!!! I got some great photos. I would run out and shoot, then run back in and warm up. Like a kid with a new toy! You should try it!



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ice is water frozen into a solid state. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence ofimpurities or air inclusions. The addition of other materials such as soil may further alter its appearance.
Ice appears naturally in forms of snowflakeshailiciclesice spikes and candlesglacierspack icefrost, and polar ice caps. It is an important component of the global climate and plays an important role in the water cycle. Furthermore, ice has numerous cultural applications, from ice cooling of drinks to winter sports to the art of ice sculpting.
The molecules in solid ice may be arranged in numerous different ways, called phases, depending on the temperature and pressure. Typically, ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on Earth's surface The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0°C (273.15K32°F) atstandard atmospheric pressure. It can also deposit from vapour with no intervening liquid phase, such as in the formation of frost.
The word is derived from Old English īs, which in turn stems from Proto-Germanic isaz.


Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. Grey dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds.
As a naturally-occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered a mineral.[1] It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms, or H-O-H. However, many of the physical properties of water and ice are controlled by the formation ofhydrogen bonds between adjacent oxygen and hydrogen atoms; while it is a weak bond, it is nonetheless critical in controlling the structure of both water and ice.
An unusual property of ice frozen at atmospheric pressure is that the solid is approximately 8.3% less dense than liquid water. The density of ice is 0.9167 g/cm3 at 0 °C,[2] whereas water has a density of 0.9998 g/cm³ at the same temperature. Liquid water is densest, essentially 1.00 g/cm³, at 4 °C and becomes less dense as the water molecules begin to form thehexagonal crystals[3] of ice as the freezing point is reached. This is due to hydrogen bonding dominating the intermolecular forces, which results in a packing of molecules less compact in the solid. Density of ice increases slightly with decreasing temperature and has a value of 0.9340 g/cm³ at −180 °C (93 K).[4]
The effect of expansion during freezing can be dramatic, and ice expansion is a basic cause of freeze-thaw weathering ofrock in nature. It is also a common cause of the flooding of houses when water pipes burst due to the pressure of expanding water when it freezes.
The result of this process is that ice (in its most common form) floats on liquid water, which is an important feature in Earth's biosphere. It has been argued that without this property natural bodies of water would freeze, in some cases permanently, from the bottom up,[5] resulting in a loss of bottom-dependent animal and plant life in fresh and sea water. Sufficiently thin ice sheets allow light to pass through while protecting the underside from short-term weather extremes such as wind chill. This creates a sheltered environment for bacterial and algal colonies. When sea water freezes, the ice is riddled with brine-filled channels which sustain sympagic organismssuch as bacteria, algae, copepods and annelids, which in turn provide food for animals such as krill and specialised fish like the Bald notothen, fed upon in turn by larger animals such as Emperor penguins and Minke whales.[6]
When ice melts, it absorbs as much energy as it would take to heat an equivalent mass of water by 80 °C. During the melting process, the temperature remains constant at 0 °C. While melting, any energy added breaks the hydrogen bonds between ice (water) molecules. Energy becomes available to increase the thermal energy (temperature) only after enough hydrogen bonds are broken that the ice can be considered liquid water. The amount of energy consumed in breaking hydrogen bonds in the transition from ice to water is known as the heat of fusion.
As with water, ice absorbs light at the red end of the spectrum preferentially as the result of an overtone of an oxygen-hydrogen (O-H) bond stretch. Compared with water, this absorption is shifted toward slightly lower energies. Thus, ice appears blue, with a slightly greener tint than for liquid water. Since absorption is cumulative, the color effect intensifies with increasing thickness or if internal reflections cause the light to take a longer path through the ice.[7]
Other colors can appear in the presence of light absorbing impurities, where the impurity is dictating the color rather than the ice itself. For instance, icebergs containing impurities (e.g., sediments, algae, air bubbles) can appear brown, grey or green.[7]


Frozen waterfall in southeast New York
Ice was originally thought to be slippery due to the pressure. The pressure of an object coming into contact with the ice would create heat, thereby melting a thin layer of the ice and allowing the object to glide across the surface.[citation needed]For example, the blade of an ice skate, upon exerting pressure on the ice, would melt a thin layer, providing lubrication between the ice and the blade. This explanation, called "pressure melting", originated in 19th century. It however did not account for skating on ice temperatures lower than −3.5 °C, which skaters often skate upon. In the 20th century an alternative explanation, called "friction heating," was proposed, whereby friction of the material was the cause of the ice layer melting. However, this theory also failed to explain skating at low temperature. Neither sufficiently explained why ice is slippery when standing still even at below-zero temperatures.[8]
It is now commonly accepted that ice is slippery because ice molecules in contact with air cannot properly bond with the molecules of the mass of ice beneath (and thus are free to move like molecules of liquid water). These molecules remain in a semi-liquid state, providing lubrication regardless of pressure against the ice exerted by any object.[9]


Feather ice on the plateau near Alta, Norway. The crystals form at temperatures below −30 °C (i.e. −22 °F).
Ice that is found at sea may be in the form of sea ice, pack ice, or icebergs. The term that collectively describes all of the parts of the Earth's surface where water is in frozen form is the cryosphere. Ice is an important component of the global climate, particularly in regard to the water cycle. Glaciers and snowpacks are an important storage mechanism for fresh water; over time, they may sublimate or melt. Snowmelt is often an important source of seasonal fresh water.
Rime is a type of ice formed on cold objects when drops of water crystallize on them. This can be observed in foggy weather, when the temperature drops during the night. Soft rime contains a high proportion of trapped air, making it appear white rather than transparent, and giving it a density about one quarter of that of pure ice. Hard rime is comparatively denser.
Aufeis is layered ice that forms in Arctic and subarctic stream valleys. Ice, frozen in the stream bed, blocks normal groundwater discharge, and causes the local water table to rise, resulting in water discharge on top of the frozen layer. This water then freezes, causing the water table to rise further and repeat the cycle. The result is a stratified ice deposit, often several meters thick.
Ice can also form icicles, similar to stalactites in appearance, or stalagmite-like forms as water drips and re-freezes.
Clathrate hydrates are forms of ice that contain gas molecules trapped within its crystal lattice.
Pancake ice is a formation of ice generally created in areas with less calm conditions.
Candle ice is a form of rotten ice that develops in columns perpendicular to the surface of a lake.
Ice discs are circular formations of ice surrounded by water in a river.
The World Meteorological Organization defines several kinds of ice depending on origin, size, shape, influence and so on.[10]

Ice pellets[edit]

An accumulation of ice pellets
Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small, translucent balls of ice. This form of precipitation is also referred to as sleet by the United States National Weather Service.[11] (In Commonwealth English "sleet" refers to a mixture of rain and snow). Ice pellets are usually (but not always) smaller than hailstones.[12] They often bounce when they hit the ground, and generally do not freeze into a solid mass unless mixed with freezing rain. The METAR code for ice pellets is PL.[13]
Ice pellets form when a layer of above-freezing air is located between 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) and 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above the ground, with sub-freezing air both above and below it. This causes the partial or complete melting of any snowflakes falling through the warm layer. As they fall back into the sub-freezing layer closer to the surface, they re-freeze into ice pellets. However, if the sub-freezing layer beneath the warm layer is too small, the precipitation will not have time to re-freeze, and freezing rain will be the result at the surface. A temperature profile showing a warm layer above the ground is most likely to be found in advance of a warm front during the cold season,[14] but can occasionally be found behind a passingcold front.


A large hailstone, about 6 cm (2.36 in) in diameter
Like other precipitation, hail forms in storm clouds when supercooled water droplets freeze on contact with condensation nuclei, such as dust or dirt. The storm's updraft blows the hailstones to the upper part of the cloud. The updraft dissipates and the hailstones fall down, back into the updraft, and are lifted up again. Hail has a diameter of 5 millimetres (0.20 in) or more.[15] Within METAR code, GR is used to indicate larger hail, of a diameter of at least 6.4 millimetres (0.25 in) and GS for smaller.[13] Stones just larger than golf ball-sized are one of the most frequently reported hail sizes.[16] Hailstones can grow to 15 centimetres (6 in) and weigh more than .5 kilograms (1.1 lb).[17] In large hailstones, latent heat released by further freezing may melt the outer shell of the hailstone. The hailstone then may undergo 'wet growth', where the liquid outer shell collects other smaller hailstones.[18] The hailstone gains an ice layer and grows increasingly larger with each ascent. Once a hailstone becomes too heavy to be supported by the storm's updraft, it falls from the cloud.[19]
Hail forms in strong thunderstorm clouds, particularly those with intense updrafts, high liquid water content, great vertical extent, large water droplets, and where a good portion of the cloud layer is below freezing 0 °C (32 °F).[15] Hail-producing clouds are often identifiable by their green coloration.[20][21] The growth rate is maximized at about −13 °C (9 °F), and becomes vanishingly small much below −30 °C(−22 °F) as supercooled water droplets become rare. For this reason, hail is most common within continental interiors of the mid-latitudes, as hail formation is considerably more likely when the freezing level is below the altitude of 11,000 feet (3,400 m).[22] Entrainment of dry air into strong thunderstorms over continents can increase the frequency of hail by promoting evaporational cooling which lowers the freezing level of thunderstorm clouds giving hail a larger volume to grow in. Accordingly, hail is actually less common in the tropics despite a much higher frequency of thunderstorms than in the mid-latitudes because the atmosphere over the tropics tends to be warmer over a much greater depth. Hail in the tropics occurs mainly at higher elevations.[23]


Snowflake viewed in an optical microscope
Snow crystals form when tiny supercooled cloud droplets (about 10 μm in diameter) freeze. These droplets are able to remain liquid at temperatures lower than −18 °C (255 K; −0 °F), because to freeze, a few molecules in the droplet need to get together by chance to form an arrangement similar to that in an ice lattice; then the droplet freezes around this "nucleus." Experiments show that this "homogeneous" nucleation of cloud droplets only occurs at temperatures lower than −35 °C(238 K; −31 °F).[24] In warmer clouds an aerosol particle or "ice nucleus" must be present in (or in contact with) the droplet to act as a nucleus. Our understanding of what particles make efficient ice nuclei is poor – what we do know is they are very rare compared to that cloud condensation nuclei on which liquid droplets form. Clays, desert dust and biological particles may be effective,[25] although to what extent is unclear. Artificial nuclei are used in cloud seeding.[26] The droplet then grows by condensation of water vapor onto the ice surfaces.

Diamond dust[edit]

Diamond dust, also known as ice needles or ice crystals, forms at temperatures approaching −40 °C (−40 °F) due to air with slightly higher moisture from aloft mixing with colder, surface based air.[27] The METAR identifier for diamond dust within international hourly weather reports is IC.[13]


Chill-out music

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chill-out music (sometimes also chillout, chill out, or simply chill) is an umbrella term for several styles of electronic music characterized by their mellow style and mid-tempo beats — "chill" being derived from a slang injunction to "relax."
Chill out music emerged in the early and mid-1990s in "chill rooms" at dance clubs, where relaxing music was played to allow dancers a chance to "chill out" from the more emphatic and fast-tempo music played on the main dance floor.
The genres associated with chill-out are mostly ambienttrip-hopnu jazzambient houseNew Age and other sub-genres of downtempo. Sometimes the easy listening sub-genre lounge is considered to belong to the chill-out collection as well. Chill out as a musical genre or description is synonymous with the more recently popularized terms "smooth electronica" and "soft techno" and is a loose genre of music blurring into several other very distinct styles of electronic and lo-fi music.


Renowned sunset at the Café del Mar in Ibiza
"chill out room" was at the legendary Madchester nightspot, Konspiracy.[1] In these rooms, visitors would find couches, comfortable pillows, psychedelic light shows projecting entrancing images and music that was decidedly downtempo, especially when compared to what was going on a few feet away on the dance floor. Its history began in the UK, with post-punk band The Durutti Column being an abstract influence on the genre in the '80s. Higher Intelligence Agency (the HIA) helped move the chill room concept from sideshow to main event with their Oscillate chill party events in Birmingham and elsewhere in the early to mid nineties. Their first releases came out on the now defunct Beyond record label and soon thereafter in the U.S. on the Waveform label - who describes the music as 'exotic electronica.'
In 1990 the KLF released their seminal ambient house album named Chill Out.
A number of compilations with "Chill Out" in their titles were released in the mid-1990s and beyond, helping to establish the genre as being closely related to downtempo and trip hop but also incorporating, especially in the early 2000s, slower tempo varieties of house musicnu-jazzpsybient, and lounge music of approximately 80 to 110bpm . The genre also includes some forms of trance musicambient music, and IDM, and it has entirely subsumed the older genre Balearic Beat, although that term is still used interchangeably with chill out. Chill out is generally tonal, relaxing (or at least not as "intense" as other music from the styles it draws from), although when used to describe the music played in chillout rooms at raves, it can also encompass extremely psychedelic experimental sounds of great variety.

Chill-room club culture[edit]

A culture surrounding chill-out music has evolved, with many fashionable bars and clubs - designed with a retroor retro-futuristic ambience - devoted to the genre. Ministry of Sound in London has hosted many chill-out events in places such as Ibiza, and hundreds of mix compilation titles including the words "chill out" or just "chill" cater to chill-out audiences. As of 2005 all major UK dance magazines and their charts recognised the category "chill out". Ministry of Sound released an album in 2008 named "Chilled"; they described the songs in the album "the best chill out songs from 1991 to 2008".
Chill-out rooms at dance clubs fill a safety need for users of Ecstasy, which has caused problems and some deaths due to dehydration or to heat stroke. In 1992, a UK regulation required dance clubs to provide free water and chill-out rooms in response to a number of Ecstasy-related injuries and deaths.[2]

...this is brendasue signing off from Rainbow Creek.  See You next time! Stay inside and CHILL******