Hi Everybody!!

Hi Everybody!!
Welcome to my Hometown!!

Saturday, November 24, 2012


Hi Everybody!!
While some people got pulled into "Black Friday", at my place I was enjoying "Red Friday"!! Two days ago my star crape myrtle's leaves turned red! I know this is not a big deal to those of You already in the blizzardy, snowy aspects of winter. However, in South Texas (not known for fall colors), it is a very big deal to see a flame red bush in the yard! A burning bush indeed! Enjoy Your photostudy of my crape myrtle in the front yard. (Of course, a few other surprises revealed about red friday!)



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lagerstroemia (play /ˌlɡərˈstrmiə/),[1] commonly known as crape myrtle or crepe myrtle, is a genus of around 50 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubsnative to the Indian Subcontinent, southeast Asia, northern Australia and parts of Oceania, cultivated in warmer climates around the world. It is a member of theLythraceae, which is also known as the loosestrife family. The genus is named after the Swedish merchant Magnus von Lagerström, who supplied Carolus Linnaeus with plants he collected. It should not be confused with Malpighia glabra, wild crepemyrtle, also known as Acerola[2]
Lagerstroemia indica
The common crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) from China and Korea, was introduced circa 1790 to Charleston, South Carolina, in the United States by the French botanist André Michaux. In the wild, the species is most often found as a multistemmed large shrub, but two hundred years of cultivation has resulted in a huge number of cultivarsof widely varying characteristics. Today, crape myrtles varieties can fill every landscape need, from tidy street trees to dense barrier hedges all the way down to fast-growing dwarf types of less than two feet, which can go from seed to bloom in a season (allowing gardeners in places where the plant is not winter-hardy to still enjoy the intense colors of the frilly flowers). In Europe, crape myrtle is common in the south of France, the Iberian Peninsula and all of Italy; in the United States it can be seen anywhere south of USDA Zone 6, doing best and avoiding fungal diseases in mild climates that are not overly humid, such as inland California and Texas.

Eric Clapton∻

"Autumn Leaves"

Uploaded by  on Oct 13, 2011
Songwriters: J.Prevert (original french lyrics),J.Mercer (english lyrics), J.Kosma (music)


Red Friday

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On Friday 31 July 1925 the British government agreed to the demands of the Miners Federation of Great Britain to provide a subsidy to the mining industry to maintain miners' wages. The Daily Herald called this day Red Friday; a union defeat four years earlier had been called "Black Friday".[1] The 1926 General Strike followed nine months later.


Support our troops

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Support our troops (FrenchAppuyons nos troupes;[1] SpanishApoya a nuestras tropas) is a slogan commonly used in the United States and Canada[2] in reference to each country's military forces or troops. The slogan has been used during recent conflicts, including the Gulf War[3] and the Iraq war.
The slogan is sometimes seen as over-generalizing complex issues; for example, an individual may support personnel in the military but not the current respective government's foreign policy.

Red Fridays 

RED FRIDAYRED FRIDAYS ----- Very soon, you will see a great many people wearing Red every Friday. The reason? Americans who support our troops used ...


 Nov. 22, 2012

Published on Nov 22, 2012 by 
TV: Residents by sinkhole "believe nothing will be done until someone dies"
Uploaded: Nov. 22, 2012, 12:26 p.m. (pac.time)




No copyright infringement is ever intended. 


Hydrogen sulfide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hydrogen sulfide (British Englishhydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers; this process is commonly known asanaerobic digestion. It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and some well waters. The human body produces small amounts of H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule.
Hydrogen sulfide
CAS number7783-06-4 Yes
ChemSpider391 Yes
EC number231-977-3
UN number1053
KEGGC00283 Yes
ChEBICHEBI:16136 Yes
RTECS numberMX1225000
Beilstein Reference3535004
Gmelin Reference303
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Molecular formulaH2S
Molar mass34.08 g mol−1
AppearanceColorless gas
Odorfaint rotten egg
Density1.363 g dm-3
Melting point
-82 °C, 191 K, -116 °F
Boiling point
-60 °C, 213 K, -76 °F
Solubility in water4 g dm-3 (at 20 °C)
Vapor pressure1740 kPa (at 21 °C)
Acidity (pKa)7.0[2]
Basicity (pKb)6.95
Refractive index (nD)1.000644 (0 °C)[3]
Molecular shapeBent
Dipole moment0.97 D
Std enthalpy of
−21 kJ·mol−1[4]
Standard molar
206 J·mol−1·K−1[4]
Specific heat capacityC1.003 J K-1 g-1
EU Index016-001-00-4
EU classificationFlammable F+ Very Toxic T+ Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
Flash point-82.4 °C.[5]
232 °C
Explosive limits4.3–46%
Related compounds
Related hydrogen chalcogenidesWater
Hydrogen selenide
Hydrogen telluride
Hydrogen polonide
Hydrogen disulfide
Related compoundsPhosphine


Hydrogen sulfide is slightly heavier than air; a mixture of H2S and air is explosive. Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen burn with a blue flame to form sulfur dioxide (SO2) and water. In general, hydrogen sulfide acts as a reducing agent.
At high temperature or in the presence of catalysts, sulfur dioxide can be made to react with hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and water. This is exploited in the Claus process, the main way to convert hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur.
Hydrogen sulfide is slightly soluble in water and acts as a weak acid, giving the hydrosulfide ion HS (pKa = 6.9 in 0.01-0.1 mol/litre solutions at 18 °C). A solution of hydrogen sulfide in water, known as sulfhydric acid or hydrosulfuric acid, is initially clear but over time turns cloudy. This is due to the slow reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the oxygen dissolved in water, yielding elemental sulfur, which precipitates out. The sulfide dianion S2− exists only in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions; it is exceptionally basic with a pKa > 14.
Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides, which may be considered the salts of hydrogen sulfide. Some ores are sulfides. Metal sulfides often have a dark color. Lead(II) acetate paper is used to detect hydrogen sulfide because it turns grey in the presence of the gas as lead(II) sulfide is produced. Reacting metal sulfides with strong acid liberates hydrogen sulfide.
If gaseous hydrogen sulfide is put into contact with concentrated nitric acid, it explodes.
Hydrogen sulfide reacts with alcohols to form thiols.


Hydrogen sulfide is most commonly obtained by its separation from sour gas, which is natural gas with high content ofH2S. It can also be produced by reacting hydrogen gas with molten elemental sulfur at about 450 °C. Hydrocarbons can replace hydrogen in this process.[6]
Sulfate-reducing (resp. sulfur-reducing) bacteria generate usable energy under low-oxygen conditions by using sulfates (resp. elemental sulfur) to oxidize organic compounds or hydrogen; this produces hydrogen sulfide as a waste product.
The standard lab preparation is to react ferrous sulfide (FeS) with a strong acid in a Kipp generator.
FeS + 2 HCl → FeCl2 + H2S
A less well-known and more convenient alternative is to react aluminium sulfide with water:
6 H2O + Al2S3 → 3 H2S + 2 Al(OH)3
This gas is also produced by heating sulfur with solid organic compounds and by reducing sulfurated organic compounds with hydrogen.
Hydrogen sulfide is also a byproduct of some reactions and caution should be taken when production is likely as exposure can be fatal.
Hydrogen sulfide production can be costly because of the dangers involved in production.


Deposit of sulfur on a rock, caused by volcanic gases
Small amounts of hydrogen sulfide occur in crude petroleum, but natural gas can contain up to 90%.[7] Volcanoes and some hot springs (as well as cold springs) emit some H2S, where it probably arises via the hydrolysis of sulfide minerals, i.e. MS + H2O → MO + H2S.[citation needed] Hydrogen sulfide can be present naturally in well water, often as a result of the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
About 10% of total global emissions of H2S is due to human activity. By far the largest industrial route to H2S occurs inpetroleum refineries: The hydrodesulfurization process liberates sulfur from petroleum by the action of hydrogen. The resulting H2S is converted to elemental sulfur by partial combustion via the Claus process, which is a major source of elemental sulfur. Other anthropogenic sources of hydrogen sulfide include coke ovens, paper mills (using the sulfate method), and tanneriesH2S arises from virtually anywhere where elemental sulfur comes in contact with organic material, especially at high temperatures.

Removal from fuel gases

Hydrogen sulfide is commonly found in natural gasbiogas, and LPG. It can be removed in a number of ways.

[edit]Reaction with iron oxide

Gas is pumped through a container of hydrated iron(III) oxide, which combines with hydrogen sulfide.
Fe2O3(s) + H2O(l) + 3 H2S(g) → Fe2S3(s) + 4 H2O(l)
In order to regenerate iron(III) oxide, the container must be taken out of service, flooded with water and aerated.
Fe2S3(s) + 3 O2(g) + 2 H2O(l) → 2 Fe2O3(s) + 2 H2O(l) + 6 S(s)
On completion of the regeneration reaction the container is drained of water and can be returned to service.
The advantage of this system is that it is completely passive during the extraction phase.[8]


Hydrodesulfurization is a more complex method of removing sulfur from fuels.


Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic and flammable gas (flammable range: 4.3–46%). Being heavier than air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Although very pungent at first, it quickly deadens the sense of smell, so potential victims may be unaware of its presence until it is too late. For safe handling procedures, a hydrogen sulfide material safety data sheet (MSDS) should be consulted.[9]
In 1975, a hydrogen sulfide release in Denver City, located in Yoakum and Gaines counties, Texas, caused the state legislature to focus on the deadly hazards of the gas. State Representative E L Short of Tahoka in Lynn County, took the lead in endorsing an investigation by the Texas Railroad Commission and urged that residents be warned "by knocking on doors if necessary" of the imminent danger stemming from the gas. One may die from the second inhalation of the gas, and a warning itself may be too late.[10]


Hydrogen sulfide is considered a broad-spectrum poison, meaning that it can poison several different systems in the body, although the nervous system is most affected. The toxicity of H2S is comparable with that of hydrogen cyanide. It forms a complex bond with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes, thus preventingcellular respiration.
Since hydrogen sulfide occurs naturally in the body, the environment and the gut, enzymes exist in the body capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to (harmless) sulfate.[11] Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulfide may be tolerated indefinitely.
At some threshold level, believed to average around 300–350 ppm, the oxidative enzymes become overwhelmed. Many personal safety gas detectors, such as those used by utility, sewage and petrochemical workers, are set to alarm at as low as 5 to 10 ppm and to go into high alarm at 15 ppm.
A diagnostic clue of extreme poisoning by H2S is the discoloration of copper coins in the pockets of the victim. Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). HBO therapy has anecdotal support and remains controversial.[12][13][14]
Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation, a sore throat and cough, nausea, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These effects are believed to be due to the fact that hydrogen sulfide combines with alkali present in moist surface tissues to form sodium sulfide, a caustic.[15] These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks.
Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Chronic exposure to low level H2S (around 2ppm) has been implicated in increased miscarriage and reproductive health issues among Russian and Finnish wood pulp workers,[16] but the reports have not (as of circa 1995) been replicated.
  • 0.00047 ppm or 0.47 ppb is the odor threshold, the point at which 50% of a human panel can detect the presence of the compound.[17]
  • 0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic odor of hydrogen sulfide,[17] normally described as resembling "a rotten egg".
  • OSHA has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL)(8 hour time-weighted average(TWA)) of 10 ppm.[18]
  • 10–20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation.
  • 20 ppm is the acceptable ceiling concentration established by OSHA.[18]
  • 50 ppm is the acceptable maximum peak above the ceiling concentration for an 8 hour shift, with a maximum duration of 10 minutes.[18]
  • 50–100 ppm leads to eye damage.
  • At 100–150 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger.[19][20]
  • 320–530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death.
  • 530–1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing.
  • 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposure (LC50).
  • Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.
Although respiratory paralysis may be immediate, it can also be delayed up to 72 hours.[21]
Hydrogen sulfide was used by the British Army as a chemical agent during World War I. It was not considered to be an ideal war gas, but, while other gases were in short supply, it was used on two occasions in 1916.[22]
A dump of toxic waste containing hydrogen sulfide is believed to have caused 17 deaths and thousands of illnesses in Abidjan, on the West Africa coast, in the 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste dump.


The gas, produced by mixing certain household ingredients, was used in a suicide wave in 2008 in Japan.[23] The wave prompted staff at Tokyo's suicide preventioncenter to set up a special hot line during "Golden Week", as they received an increase in calls from people wanting to kill themselves during the annual May holiday.[24]
As of 2010, this phenomenon has occurred in a number of US cities (and in Putney, West London, England), prompting warnings to those arriving at the site of the suicide.[25] These first responders, such as emergency services workers or family members are at risk of death from inhaling lethal quantities of the gas, or by fire.[26][27]Local governments have also initiated campaigns to prevent such suicides.

[edit]Function in the body

Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the mammalian body and has a number of biological signaling functions. (Only two other such gases are currently known: nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO).)
The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as avasodilator[28] and is also active in the brain, where it increases the response of the NMDA receptor and facilitates long term potentiation,[29] which is involved in the formation of memory.
Eventually the gas is converted to sulfite in the mitochondria by thiosulfate reductase, and the sulfite is further oxidized to thiosulfate and sulfate by sulfite oxidase. The sulfates are excreted in the urine.[30]
Due to its effects similar to nitric oxide (without its potential to form peroxides by interacting with superoxide), hydrogen sulfide is now recognized as potentially protecting against cardiovascular disease.[28] The cardioprotective role effect of garlic is caused by catabolism of the polysulfide group in allicin to H2S, a reaction that could depend on reduction mediated by glutathione.[31]
Though both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide have been shown to relax blood vessels, their mechanisms of action are different: while NO activates the enzymeguanylyl cyclaseH2S activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in smooth muscle cells. Researchers are not clear how the vessel-relaxing responsibilities are shared between nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. However there exists some evidence to suggest that nitric oxide does most of the vessel-relaxing work in large vessels and hydrogen sulfide is responsible for similar action in smaller blood vessels.[32]
Recent findings suggest strong cellular crosstalk of NO and H2S,[33] demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two gases are mutually dependent. Additionally, H2S reacts with intracellular S-nitrosothiols to form the smallest S-nitrosothiol (HSNO), and a role of hydrogen sulfide in controlling the intracellular S-nitrosothiol pool has been suggested.[34]
Like nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide is involved in the relaxation of smooth muscle that causes erection of the penis, presenting possible new therapy opportunities forerectile dysfunction.[35][36]
In Alzheimer's disease the brain's hydrogen sulfide concentration is severely decreased.[37] In trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) the body produces an excess of hydrogen sulfide.[30] Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes produce an excess of the gas, leading to the death of beta cells and to a reduced production of insulin by those that remain.

Mass extinctions

Hydrogen sulfide has been implicated in several mass extinctions that have occurred in the Earth's past. In particular, a buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere may have caused the Permian-Triassic extinction event 252 million years ago.[48]
Organic residues from these extinction boundaries indicate that the oceans were anoxic (oxygen-depleted) and had species of shallow plankton that metabolized H2S. The formation of H2S may have been initiated by massive volcanic eruptions, which emitted carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which warmed the oceans, lowering their capacity to absorb oxygen that would otherwise oxidize H2S. The increased levels of hydrogen sulfide could have killed oxygen-generating plants as well as depleted the ozone layer, causing further stress. Small H2S blooms have been detected in modern times in theDead Sea and in the Atlantic ocean off the coast of Namibia.

File:Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions off of Africa.jpg
A hydrogen sulfide bloom (green) stretching for about 150km along the coast of Namibia. As oxygen-poor water reaches the coast, bacteria in the organic-matter rich sediment produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to fish. (The image is taken from abird's eye view)

And finally moving on to: 
 The Lady in Red!

Chris de Burgh-

The Lady In Red-

Cover By Catalin

Uploaded by  on Oct 21, 2011
I love this song

Get Ready for something completely different: Jerry Lee!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Jerry Lee Lewis - 

Put on your red dress-

I believe 

in you (B&

Uploaded by  on Jan 11, 2007

...this is brendasue signing off from Rainbow Creek.  See You next Time!

Of Course, one more Great Performance!

Jerry Lee Lewis

 Great balls of fire

Uploaded by  on Feb 9, 2010
Hoping You never see a Great Ball of Fire. (Get out of Louisiana FOREVER)

Red Fridays 

RED FRIDAYRED FRIDAYS ----- Very soon, you will see a great many people wearing Red every Friday. The reason? Americans who support our troops used ...