Madame Red Dumpling was up early this frosty cold morning in Texas! She is stuffing her cheeks full of seed to take up to her pantry in her room (nest)! I think she is storing up on snacks for Super Bowl Sunday on February 3 in the Super Dome in New Orleans. I see the Red Tail Rising in the Light as a good sign! She is a very Special Squirrel!!
- 27 BC – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire.
- 378 – General Siyaj K'ak' conquers Tikal, enlarging the domain of King Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacán.
- 550 – Gothic War (535–554): The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing theIsaurian garrison.
- 929 – Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III established the Caliphate of Córdoba.
- 1120 – The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- 1362 – A storm tide in the North Sea destroys the German city of Rungholt on the island of Strand.
- 1412 – The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy.
- 1492 – The first grammar of the Spanish language is presented to Queen Isabella I.
- 1547 – Ivan IV of Russia aka Ivan the Terrible becomes Czar of Russia.
- 1556 – Philip II becomes King of Spain.
- 1572 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restoreCatholicism in England.
- 1581 – The English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism.
- 1605 – The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes is published inMadrid, Spain.
- 1707 – The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving the way for the creation of Great Britain.
- 1761 – The British capture Pondicherry, India from the French.
- 1780 – American Revolution: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
- 1786 – Virginia enacted the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson.
- 1809 – Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña.
- 1847 – John C. Frémont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
- 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) – Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoonsliberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
- 1883 – The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing the United States Civil Service, is passed.
- 1896 – Defeat of Cymru Fydd at South Wales Liberal Federation AGM, Newport, Monmouthshire.
- 1900 – The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands.
- 1909 – Ernest Shackleton's expedition finds the magnetic South Pole.
- 1919 – Temperance movement: The United States ratifies the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition in the United States one year after ratification.
- 1920 – The League of Nations holds its first council meeting in Paris, France.
- 1924 – Eleftherios Venizelos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for the fourth time.
- 1939 – The Irish Republican Army (IRA) begins a bombing and sabotage campaign in England.
- 1942 – Crash of TWA Flight 3, killing all 22 aboard, including film star Carole Lombard.
- 1945 – Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker.
- 1956 – President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt vows to reconquer Palestine.
- 1964 – Hello, Dolly! (musical) starring Carol Channing opened on Broadway, beginning a run of 2,844 performances.
- 1969 – Czech student Jan Palach commits suicide by self-immolation in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in protest against the Soviets' crushing of thePrague Spring the year before.
- 1969 – Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 perform the first-ever docking of manned spacecraft in orbit, the first-ever transfer of crew from one space vehicle to another, and the only time such a transfer was accomplished with a space walk.
- 1970 – Buckminster Fuller receives the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects.
- 1973 – Anna Christian Waters disappears from her backyard. She is never found.
- 1973 – Bonanza Final episode airs on NBC.
- 1979 – The Shah of Iran flees Iran with his family and relocates to Egypt.
- 1986 – First meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force.
- 1991 – The Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War (U.S. Time).
- 1992 – El Salvador officials and rebel leaders sign the Chapultepec Peace Accords in Mexico City, Mexico ending the 12-year Salvadoran Civil War that claimed at least 75,000.
- 2001 – Congolese President Laurent-Désiré Kabila is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards.
- 2001 – US President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish–American War.
- 2002 – The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining members of the Taliban.
- 2003 – The Space Shuttle Columbia takes off for mission STS-107 which would be its final one. Columbia disintegrated 16 days later on re-entry.
- 2005 – Romanian university lecturer and novelist Adriana Iliescu gives birth at 66 to her daughter Eliza, breaking the record for the oldest birth mother in the world
- 2006 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is sworn in as Liberia's new president. She becomes Africa's first female elected head of state.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Text of statute
- First Freedom Center
- Jefferson Bible
- National Religious Freedom Day
- Separation of church and state in the United States
- United States Bill of Rights
- "Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, January 16, 1786". Shaping the Constitution. Virginia Memory.
- W.W. Hening, ed., Statutes at Large of Virginia, vol. 12 (1823): 84-86.
- "Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, January 16, 1786". Virginia Memory.
League of Nations
The League is dead. Long live the United Nations.
January 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
- Saint Honoratus of Arles, archbishop and founder of Lerins Monastery
- Martyrs Speusippus, Eleusippus, Meleusippus, Leonilla, Neon, Turbo, and Jonilla (Jovilla) in Cappadocia (2nd century)
- Martyr Danax in Macedonia (2nd century)
- Hieromartyr Damascene of Chilandar on Mount Athos (1771)
- Blessed Maximus of Totma in Vologda, Fool-for-Christ (1650)
- Saint Romil, monk of Mount Athos, with him Nestor, Martinius, Daniel, Sisoes, Zosimas, and Gregory
- Veneration of the Precious Chains of the holy and all-glorious Apostle Peter
Holidays and observances
- Christian Feast Day:
- Flag Day or Magen David Day (Israel)
- Teachers' Day (Thailand)